Tuesday, March 27, 2007



Basic nanomachines are already in use. Nanobots will be the next generation of nanomachines. Advanced nanobots will be able to sense and adapt to environmental stimuli such as heat, light, sounds, surface textures, and chemicals; perform complex calculations; move, communicate, and work together; conduct molecular assembly; and, to some extent, repair or even replicate themselves. Nanoindia.blogspot.com is an informational site that provides information on both recent developments and future applications at the intersection of nanotechnology and robotics.

Nanotechnology is the science and application of creating objects on a level smaller than 100 nanometers. The extreme concept of nanotechnology is the "bottom up" creation of virtually any material or object by assembling one atom at a time.
Although nanotech processes occur at the scale of nanometers, the materials and objects that result from these processes can be much larger. Large-scale results happen when nanotechnology involves massive parallelism in which many simultaneous and synergistic nanoscale processes combine to produce a large-scale result.

Nanotechnology spans and merges disciplines dealing with matter at the micro level (physics, chemistry, and biology) with those dealing with matter at the macro level (engineering, materials science and computer science).

Nanotechnology coatings are already being used to make clothing with stain-resistant fibers. Nanotech powders are already being used to formulate high-performance sun-screen lotions. Nanoparticles are already helping to deliver drugs to targeted tissues within the body. Additional applications are underway in the areas of: medical diagnosis and treatments; biotechnology; advanced development of pharmaceuticals; cosmetics; aerospace and automotive industries; security, defense, and environmental protection; electronics, computers and communication; energy production, storage, and lighting; and manufacturing and product design.

Nanomanufacturing is the creation of materials and products through:
(1) Direct Molecular Assembly (DMA)
Discrete, directed assembly of individual atoms and molecules into macroscale materials and products;
(2) Indirect Crystalline Assembly (ICA)
Creation of conditions that foster the growth of nanoscale crystals that are then combined into macroscale materials and products;
(3) Massive Parallelism Assembly (MPA)
The creation of many nanomachines or nanobots whose operating parameters cause them to work synergistically to assemble atoms and molecules into macroscale materials and products.

What defines life? Is it the ability to …reproduce? … adapt to the environment? …think and learn? Or is life determined by structure and origin rather than function and ability?
Nanotechnology may be able to create nanobots that emulate certain functions of biological entities, but the structures and origin of nanobots will likely remain quite different than those of biological entities.

Nanotechnology has the potential to completely revolutionize the electronics industry.Nanomachines may some day create computer circuits from the “bottom up” -- one atom at a time. This would allow the manufacturing of nanochips on a much smaller scale than chips created with current “top down” etching techniques.

Nanocrystalline processes can also be used to grow electronics components.
For example: (1) carbon nanotubes grown in targeted micro-environments can have super-conductive properties; and (2) nanowires as small as strings of atoms can be grown like crystals and then assembled into circuits. Circuits created atom-by-atom or grown using nanocrystalline techniques will be much smaller, lighter, efficient, cooler, stronger, and faster than circuits made with conventional manufacturing processes.

Nanotechnology has numerous energy-related applications. Nanophotonics is the application of nanotechnology to the transformation of electricity to light or light to electricity. In this area, nanocrystals or nanophosphores can make this transformation with greater efficiency than traditional incandescent lighting or solar panels. Using nanoceramic material as the covering for batteries absorbs electromagnetic waves and prolongs battery life. Nanopolymers provide high-performance insulation for energy transmission lines and decrease energy loss across long distances.

In the telecommunications industry, nanotechnology will play an important role in the coming years particularly with respect to fiber optics. Nanocrystalline materials can be made with finer resolution than standard fibers for enhanced optic cables, switches, lenses and junctions. In telecommunications more generally, the fields of nanotechnology and holotechnology will overlap in the design of the projection screens and user interfaces of the next generations of holographic cell phones, “Holographones,” and televisions, “HoloTVs.”

Nanotechnology is already being used for several sports and recreation related applications. For example, nanotech tennis rackets and golf clubs are lighter, stronger, and can be engineered to provide more motion control. Nanotech coatings on swim suits repel water, reduce friction with the water, and allow swimmers to go faster.

Many human illnesses and injuries have their origins in nanoscale processes. Accordingly, application of nanotechnology to the practice of medicine and biomedical research opens up new opportunities to treat illnesses, repair injuries, and enhance human functioning beyond what is possible with macroscale techniques. At the nanoscale level, the distinctions between mechanical and biological processes blur. Nanoparticles can attach to certain cells or tissues and provide medical images of their location and structure. Hollow nanocapsules with pharmaceutical contents can attach to cancer cells and release their payloads into them – maximizing targeted delivery and minimizing systemic side effects. Nanomedibots may repair vital tissue damanged by injury or disease, or destroy cancerous tissue that has gone awry, without invasive surgery.

Nanopharmacology is the application of nanotechnology to the discovery of new molecular entities with pharmacological properties. Nanotechnology is also useful for individualized matching of pharmaceuticals to particular people to maximize effectiveness and minimize side effects. It is also used for delivery of pharmaceuticals to targeted locations or specific types of tissue in the body.

There are promising applications of nanotechnology in the field of orthopedics. Grafts of natural bone can carry disease or trigger immune rejection by the host. If one sterilizes the bone to reduce the chances of disease, then this can weaken the bone. Artificial bone cement without nanotechnology can work for small applications, but tends to not have sufficient strength for load-bearing bone replacement. However, artificial bone paste made with nanoceramic particles shows considerable promise for bone repair and replacement, even in load-bearing applications.

In addition to delivering pharmaceuticals as discussed above, nanotech medical robots ("nanomedibots") may be able to: monitor body function; repair damaged tissue at the molecular level; deconstruct pathologic or abnormal material or cells such as cancer or plaque; and enhance human health and functioning. Although nanomedibots have not been developed, there are ongoing advances in nanofluidics and carbon nanotube flow sensors that may become their building blocks. As nanotechnology and biotechnology advance, nanomedibots and engineered beneficial microorganisms may be integrated.

courtesy : www.nanobot.info.

Thursday, March 15, 2007


"Nanograss" Provides Precise Fluid Control :

Scientists at Bell Labs (Murray Hill, N.J.), the R&D arm of Lucent Technologies, have discovered a new method to control the behavior of tiny liquid droplets by applying electrical charges to specially engineered silicon surfaces that resemble blades of grass.

The new technique of manipulating fluids has many potential applications, including thermal cooling of ICs, novel photonic components, and small, low-cost "lab-on-a-chip" sensor modules.

Nanograss as Coolant in electronics circuits:

Krupenkin and his team coated the nanograss with a non-stick, water-repellent material, and when the droplets are put on the surface, they can move about without wetting it. By applying a small voltage, however, the team could tailor the behavior of droplets, making them sink in and wet the surface as directed. The droplets also respond to a change in temperature, allowing for thermal cooling applications.

"Such behavior may be harnessed to cool computer chips," Krupenkin said. "A droplet could be sent to a hot spot on the chip, where it would sink in and absorb the heat, and then go on its way, avoiding the expense and inefficiency of applying a coolant or a heat sink to an entire chip."

Nanograss in Optical Networking:

Another application for this technique may be in optical networking. For example, moving a droplet of fluid into a nanograss surface can alter the physical properties of the transmitting medium through which light signals are sent, and this may lead to better methods for optical switching. Novel optical components, such as filters, could be created by moving the fluid into and out of nanograss areas, Krupenkin said.

Bell Labs and the New Jersey Nanotechnology Consortium are also exploring using the nanograss technique to create next-generation microbatteries. Conventional batteries have electrochemical reactions proceeding at some level all the time, even when batteries are not being used. Over time, the batteries degrade. By using the Bell Labs technique to isolate the liquid electrolyte so that electrochemical reactions do not take place until power is actually needed, nanograss-based microbatteries may be ideal for long-term, higher-capacity battery applications, especially where bursts of power are needed.

Yet another application for the nanograss may be "lab-on-a-chip" devices. "Potentially, one can envision lab-on-the-chip devices that use thousands of different reagents, each deposited in a small spot at the bottom of the nanograss, thus providing novel devices for combinatorial chemistry, genetic analysis, and so on," Krupenkin said. "Some other possible applications where nanograss can be used may be for low-friction torpedoes, self-cleaning windshields, and faster boats where the fluid-repellent properties of the nanograss would be important."

Other members of the interdisciplinary team involved in the research were Ashley Taylor of Bell Labs, Bell Labs intern Tobias Schnieder, and University of Pennsylvania professor Shu Yang.

Courtesy : Peter Singer, Editor-in-Chief --document.write(get_publication('Semiconductor International')); Semiconductor International.

Wednesday, February 28, 2007

Dr.Abdul Kalam's view on Nanotechnology

Dr.Abdul Kalam's view on Nanotechnology :


In this post, I like to present Dr.Abdul kalam's view on Nanotechnology.

Here comes,

Nano Technology:

When I think of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, I would like to discuss about three scientists who have laid the foundation on nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Mr. Richard Feynman, who described the concept of ‘building machines” atom by atom in his talk at Caltech titled “There is plenty of room at the bottom”.

Mr. Eric Drexler, who wrote the book titled ‘Nano Systems, Molecular machinery, manufacturing and computation”. Prof CNR Rao, who pioneered and fostered the nanoscience research in India.

Molecular nano technology has enormous potential for future aerospace systems and health areas. Research has shown that newly discovered class of molecules, leading to the development of carbon nano tubes that they have multiple applications in the system developed in the areas of electronics particularly nano-electronics and power systems.

Carbon nano tubes are normal form of carbon with remarkable electrical and mechanical properties. It is hoped that such materials could revolutionize electronic design and open the space frontier by radically lowering the cost of launch to orbit.

Carbon Nano tubes reinforced with polymer matrix will result in composites which are super strong, light weight, small and intelligent structures in the field of material science. This has tremendous aerospace applications.

Molecular switches and circuits along with nano cell will pave the way for the next generation computers.

Ultra dense computer memory coupled with excellent electrical performance will result in low power, low cost, nano size and yet faster assemblies.


Feb 22 2006 19:20 IST

Following is the text of the President, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s address at the inauguration of the Indo-US Nanotechnology Conclave:

Results of Nano Science and Technology Reaching the Societies

“Purposeful mission transcends limitations”

“I am indeed delighted to participate in the inauguration of Indo-US Nanotechnology Conclave organized by the Department of Science and Technology in partnership with Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and Indo-US Science and Technology Forum.

I greet the organizers, scientists, technologists, industry captains, academia, venture capitalists and the distinguished invitees.

I am also very happy to see that a pioneer in nano science Prof. CNR Rao has given the key note address for this Indo-US conclave and I find that this Conclave is being organized with the participation of all the stakeholders from the researchers to the users of nano-technology.

This will definitely ensure integrated definition of the problem and enable the scientific community, technological community, academicians, industrialists and venture capitalists to work together and provide cost effective quality products using nano-technology to the global society at the right time.

Products progress in Nano Science & Technology in India – some examples

A. Water: Nano tube filter - water purification

The scientists from Banaras Hindu University have devised a simple method to produce carbon nanotube filters that efficiently remove micro-to nano-scale contaminants from water and heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum.
Made entirely of carbon nanotubes, the filters are easily manufactured using a novel method for controlling the cylindrical geometry of the structure. The work was supported in part by the Ministry of Human Resource Development and Department of Science and Technology in India
The filters are hollow carbon cylinders several centimeters long and one or two centimeters wide with walls just one-third to one-half a millimeter thick. They are produced by spraying benzene into a tube-shaped quartz mold and heating the mold to 900°C. The nanotube composition makes the filters strong, reusable, and heat resistant, and they can be cleaned easily for reuse.
The carbon nanotube filters offer a level of precision suitable for different applications. They can remove 25-nanometer-sized polio viruses from water, as well as larger pathogens, such as E. coli and Staphylococcus aurous bacteria.
The researchers believe this could make the filters adaptable to micro fluidics applications that separate chemicals in drug discovery. This is a classic application of the latest in science – Nano science, to age old problem of water purification.
If properly used, this can help in lessoning the burden in our drinking water missions leading to the availability of safe drinking water that will result in minimizing the water borne diseases.
B. Healthcare:
Typhoid Detection Kit Typhoid Detection Kit has been developed by DRDE, Gwalior using the nano sensor developed by Prof. A.K. Sood, and his team from IISc, Bangalore.
Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi is a major health problem and an important challenge to health authorities of third world countries due to unsatisfactory water supply, poor sanitary conditions, malnutrition, emergence of antibiotic resistant strains etc.
According to an estimate the worldwide incidence to typhoid fever is 16 million cases annually and death rate is 6 lakhs individual per year worldwide.
In India, the morbidity due to typhoid varies from 102 to 2219/100,000 population in different parts of the countries. In some areas typhoid fever is responsible for 2-5% of all deaths.
In India for routine diagnosis for typhoid disease Widal test is performed with single serum sample which does not provide the correct diagnosis of infection. Therefore a Latex agglutination based test has been developed at DRDE, Gwalior using recombinant DNA technology and immunological technique for rapid diagnosis of typhoid infection.
The test detects S. typhi antigen directly in patient’s serum within 1-3 minutes which is very important for initiating early treatment and saving human life.
A collaborative work has been carried out with Prof. A.K. Sood of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, the sensitivity of the test has been increased 30 times by applying a small electric charge (1.5 V).
With this improvement, extreme low concentrations of the antigen in clinical sample can be detected. Moreover, very small quantity of clinical sample as low as 2-3 µl is required to perform the above test as compared to 10-15 µl sample required for latex agglutination test.
C. Power:
Gas flow induced generation of voltage from solids Prof AK Sood, professor of Physics at IISc and his student Shankar Ghosh has studied, experimented and found that the liquid flow in carbon nano tubes can generate electric current.
One of the most exciting applications to emerge from the discovery is the possibility of a heart pacemaker – like device with nanotubes, which will sit in the human body and generate power from blood.
Instead of batteries, the device will generate power by itself to regulate defective heart rhythm. The IISc has transferred the exclusive rights of the technology to an American start-up Trident Metrologies.
They will develop the prototypes and commercialize the gas flow sensors.
D. Drug delivery system
A research group headed by Professor A. N. Maitra of the University of Delhi’s Chemistry Department has developed 11 patentable technologies for improved drug delivery systems using nanoparticles.
Four of these processes have been granted U.S. patents. One of the important achievements at the initial stage of drug delivery research was development of a reverse micelles based process for the synthesis of hydrogel and 'smart' hydrogel nanoparticles for encapsulating water-soluble drugs.
This method enabled one to synthesize hydrogel nanoparticles of size less than 100nm diameter. This technology has been sold to Dabur Research Foundation in 1999. Another technology has been transferred to industry deals with nanoparticle drug delivery for eye diseases.
Traditionally, steroids have been used extensively in the treatment of ocular inflammatory disease and allergies.
However, prolonged use of steroids has many side effects. The Delhi university group’s process uses nanoparticles to encapsulate non-steroidal drugs.
"This process improves the bioavailability of the drug on the surface of the cornea".
The technology has been transferred to Chandigarh-based Panacea Biotech Ltd.
E. Microwave
CNTs Production unit DMSRDE, Kanpur is synthesizing non-aligned, quasi-aligned and aligned CNT with a batch size of 50 grams using a fast synthesis process.
It has a maximum operating temperature 12000 C. The CNTs will have applications in EM absorbers, composites, gas sensors, flow monitors, field emission devices.
Nano technology product survey:
There may be many more achievements in our scientific laboratories; I suggest DST and CII to jointly conduct a survey to prepare the technological breakthroughs accomplished in nano technology products in India.
Now let me discuss, what I have witnessed on the convergence of technologies in Bio-Nano and Info in Singapore and Republic of Korea.
Nano science & Technology Focused research in East Asia
During my recent visit to Singapore, I visited the facility built up in Biopolis, Singapore. There I saw an innovative programme of development of quality manpower in life sciences.
Biopolis has a scheme of searching talent globally and providing them all the facilities to acquire qualification of their choice from any University located in the world.
They provide the funds for the entire programme of study and they require the students to come back and work in Singapore in the field of life sciences for a minimum of six years.
This idea has emanated because they want quality manpower across the world to enhance their R&D potential leading to commercialization initiatives.
I am sure; there is an important message for all of us for nurturing young talent for all scientific research work particularly in nano-science and nano-technology.
We have 540 million youth in the country, we have to build the capacity among the aspiring youth at the graduate, post graduate and Ph.D level. Ministry of Human Resource Development and DST have to launch a major capacity building drive for developing the human resource on convergence of technologies in the Bio, Info and Nano science and technologies.
Nano cluster:
Nanyang Technological University has created a Nano science and Nano Technology cluster, which is a NTU wide network of research center with shared facilities for Nano fabrication, Nano characterization and exploitation of Nano technology applications.
Focused areas of research, development and commercialization include
Nano devices,
Energy & Catalysis,
Nano Magnetics & Photonics,
Organic Molecular Electronics,
Nano – Biotech and Nano Materials: Synthesis.
I visited the Nano Cluster labs and witnessed the developed products such as:
a. Electronic Biochips:
Microfluidic protein biochip for electrochemical immunoassays with dual ring electrode.
b. Development of PLZT (Lanthanum-substituted lead zirconate titanate) electro-optical ceramics for eye-protection devices: It can rotate the plane of incident light polarization from 00 to 900 by electric-induced birefringence.
So, PLZT ceramics can be applied in eye protection devices, protecting eyes or optical sensors from suddenly incident intense light. It provides low driving voltage and fast response time.
c. Field emission x-ray source:
Development of compact x-ray source based on CNTs (Carbon Nano Tubes) and carbon nano fibers as an electron emitter for 3-D inspection and biomedical applications.
Nano Fab:
I had visited the Samsung Electronics, Giheung Plant in Korea during my recent visit to Republic of Korea. They are the leaders in semiconductor, tele-communication, digital media and digital convergence technologies.
Out of the eight new fabrication lines, Samsung is designing four with capacities higher than conventional lines with the possibility of a 300 mm or lager wafer-unit, it includes one R&D line.
This has resulted in a steep growth in global memory semiconductor market share for Samsung on a year to year basis. Also, I had a glimpse of the nano technology research in Samsung.
Using this technology and the bioinformatics the researchers in Samsung are developing a chip that can be used to diagnose common diseases even at home.
Once the patient knows reasonably well the problem, will use the information to chose the doctor, the treatment options, and possible outcome
This visit has given me an insight, about how they plan and execute right from science, research, technology development, product development and commercialization aiming at positioning the products in the world market within a specified time frame.
I have witnessed that the integrated planning includes capacity building, establishment of centers of excellence, creation of world class infrastructure, transfer of technologies to industrial partners and marketing.
A way ahead
I have studied India’s scientific and technological work after independence. There have been some excellent areas of basic research in very advanced topic right from late 1950s and 60s.
For example we had excellent work on aero science, material science and also excellent work on semi-conductor research. Some world class scientists published papers also.
Later even in the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) area some original work was done by Raman Research Institute. We should now work to realize world class materials.
However, when one studies the technological and commercial aspects of these areas, the results have not been commensurate. We never produced an indigenous aircraft until very recently.
Also we missed micro electronic revolution in the 70s.
Similarly, in Liquid Crystal Display, we never even started a good commercial production whereas countries like Taiwan and South Korea have become world leaders in commercial production of these products.
If we study, many areas, such trend seems to be the pattern.
We should not repeat this again in areas like Nano-Technology and Convergence of nano-technology with ICT and BT.
Therefore, even while we are concentrating on basic research with eminent scientists working in it, simultaneously Indian industrial group small, big and medium should concurrently work on commercialization of nano-technologies.
It may well be that the technologies are developed in India or in USA or in other countries. The main focus should be speedy commercialization to fit into the global market.
The time is now ripe since our economy is in the ascent phase and the manufacturing sector has established adequate capacity to promote rapid commercialization of products.
Towards this, I suggest that separate funds which can be used primarily for commercialization by Indian industry either for in-house or partnership mode for specific product should be encouraged at the earliest.
And innovative managerial mechanism has to be there to utilize these funds with utmost speed and with commercial success in mind. The project should be market driven. I would suggest to the government to set apart sufficient funds on non-lapsable basis for nano-technology commercialization, and I would like industries to take a lead in this matter.
Simultaneously, there is a need to take action to build the human resource required for undertaking the challenging tasks in this new sector.
I would recommend the nano-technology community, particularly, the industrialists to read the book titled "Nano-Technology Market and Company Report" - finding hidden pearls prepared by Deutsche Bank and other experts, with details of over 350 nanocompanies and interviews with over 100 entrepreneurs.
We should mount a mission mode operation to deliver tangible products to meet our national demand as well as to be beneficial to the other countries. Let me discuss some of the national missions and the possible areas of research, design, development and production of products with reference to the areas of importance for development using nano science and technologies.
Agriculture and food processing:
We are in the mission of generating 400 tones of food grains with reduced land, with reduced water and with reduced workforce. It is essential to take an agro food processing in a big way which will bring employment potential in rural areas. Some of the possible areas of research in agriculture and food processing are:
Nano-porous zeo-lites for slow-release and efficient doses of water and fertilizers for plant, and of nutrients and drugs for livestock, nano-capsules for herbicide delivery, nano sensors for soil quality and for plant health monitoring.
Nano-composites for plastic film coatings used in food packaging, antimicrobial nano-emulsions for applications in decontamination of food equipment, packaging or food processing are other important areas of research.
India is aspiring to build hundred million homes within next ten years.
The infrastructure development in metropolitan and tier-2 cities needs to be enhanced in the form of new bridges, airports, marketing complexes and industrial units. 40% of the rural areas need to be covered with all weather roads; we need to double the present national highways ratio for the 100 square kilometer area.
Can nano-science material and technology research provide a solution? Our research focus in the nano-material should be towards cheaper rural housing, surfaces, coatings, use of concrete with heat and light exclusion;
Can we develop heat resistance nano-material to block ultraviolet and infra red radiation;
Can we develop a nano-molecular structure to make concrete more robust to water seepage,
Can we have self cleaning surfaces with bio active coating?
Energy Independence has to be our nation's first and highest priority. We must be determined to achieve this within the next 25 years i.e by the year 2030.
When our population may touch 1.4 billion people, demand from power sector will increase from the existing 120,000 MW to about 400,000 MW.
This assumes an energy growth rate of 5% per annum. Electric power generation in India now accesses four basic energy sources:
Fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal; Hydroelectricity; Nuclear power; and Renewable energy sources such as bio-fuels, solar, biomass, wind and ocean. Fortunately for us, 89% of energy used for power generation today is indigenous, from coal (56%), hydroelectricity (25%), nuclear power (3%) and Renewable (5%). Solar energy segment contributes just 0.2% of our energy production.
Thus it would be seen that only 11% of electric power generation is dependent on oil and natural gas which is mostly imported at enormous cost. Only 1% of oil is (about 2-3 million tonnes of oil) being used every year for producing electricity.
However, power generation to the extent of 10% is dependent on high cost gas supplies. The most significant aspect, however would be that the power generated through renewable energy technologies may target 20 to 25% against the present 5%.
Keeping this requirement in mind, can we find an innovative solution for the use of nano-technology using higher efficiency CNT based solar photovoltaic cells with an efficiency of 45% in partnership with Penn State University? This will enable setting up of modular hundred megawatts solar SPV plants across the country in a reduced land with reduced cost when compared to present figure of Rs. 20 Crore per megawatt SPV plant with 14% efficiency photovoltaic cells. Can we also develop novel hydrogen storage systems based on carbon nano tube for energy storage?
Safe Drinking Water:
Over 50% people do not have safe drinking water in India. Shall we embark on a mission for water purification, water de-toxification, water desalination through nano membranes and nano sensor for detecting contaminants and pathogens? How the nano-porous zeo-lites, nano-porous polymers can be used to design and develop products for water purification.
India has already patented the development of drug delivery system using nano-technology. Stem cell research in India is advancing in the field of cardiology, ophthalmology, diabetic research, endocrinology, oncology and immunology. It is essential to develop drug delivery system for stem cell implantation into the specific organs of the body related to the ailment using nano technology.
Aero Space:
Emerging technologies such as MEMS, Nano, Information technology, biotechnology, space research, Hypersonic, High power lasers and microwave will be dominating the future in every field and applications. The advancements in material science and technology will give a major thrust to the realization of advanced aerospace systems.
We are today at the convergence of Nano, Bio and Information technologies, that will lead to new generation aero space devices and products.
Molecular nano technology has enormous potential for future aerospace systems. Research has shown that newly discovered class of molecules, particularly carbon nano tubes built from graphite sheets curved into a wide variety of close shapes, may lead to tougher, high temperature materials that can survive in vacuum and other harsh environments.
Carbon nano tubes are normal form of carbon with remarkable electrical and mechanical properties. It is hoped that such materials could revolutionize electronic design and open the space frontier by radically lowering the cost of launch to orbit.
Carbon Nano Tubes reinforced with polymer matrix will result in compo-sites which are super strong, light weight, small and intelligent structures in the field of material science. This has tremendous aerospace applications.
Molecular switches and circuits along with nano cell will pave the way for the next generation computers. Ultra dense computer memory coupled with excellent electrical performance will result in low power, low cost, nano size and yet faster assemblies. This will result in the small scale assembly of computers, tablet PCs, display systems etc., With the emergence of Nanotechnology, there is convergence of nano-bio-info technologies resulting new devices which has wider applications in structure, electronics, and healthcare and space systems.
Potential applications are virtually endless. Progress in nanotechnology is spurred by collaboration among researchers in material science, mechanical engineering, computer science, molecular biology, physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, medicine and aerospace engineering.
This is one of the important emerging area which brings synergy in research and development by combining the strengths of the multiple domain knowledge leading to the creation of knowledge society.
Our educational institutions and universities should have a special purpose missions based on their core competence.
Nano Science and Technology Consortium (NASTCON)
I am confident that the Indian nano technology initiatives are maturing into marketable products for worldwide applications. Industries from abroad and India are keen to take our technologies and to commercialize.
Indian industries now should take the lead and become a partner in the nano science and technology ventures to capture the international market.
Next ten years will see nano technology playing the most dominant role in the global business environment and is expected to go beyond the billion dollar estimates and cross the figure of $ ONE trillion.
The market share for the nano technology products such as Nano materials will be about $ 340 billion, Electronics and Semi conductors will be $300 billion, Pharmaceutical will be around $ 180 billion and Aerospace and chemical plants and tools will be around $ 200 billion.
In this scenario, it is essential to have a focussed mission to capture at least 5% ($50 billion) market share within 10 years time from now, using our core competence with international partnership.
We have to launch vertical missions under an umbrella organisation (like CII/NASSCOM) with the public-private investment in at least 10 nano technology products in Water, Energy,
Agriculture, Healthcare, Space and Defence and ICT sectors. In these identified vertical missions DST, R&D institutions, Universities, Indian Private Industries, CII, FICCI and NASSCOM should work together in partnership with international industry and academia partners for faster design, development and production of products for world market.
In order to achieve this mission, we need to connect all the relevant institutions participating in this mission using the high bandwidth fiber optics network into a Knowledge Grid specially established for the nano technology mission of India and partnering nations. Recently, I have proposed the establishment of "World Knowledge Platform" which will combine the core competence of the partners in the area of convergence of technologies in Bio-Info-Nano technologies for the design, development and product realization.
Do not get into soft research in the international co-operation. You must go for applied research. Nations should work towards a win-win situation in product development and international marketing.
I recall the great saying of the Saint Maharishi Pathanjali in Yoga Sutra at 500 BC:
’When you are inspired by some great purpose, some extraordinary project, all your thoughts break their bounds, your mind transcends limitations, your consciousness expands in every direction, and you find yourself in a new, great and wonderful world. Dormant forces, faculties and talents come alive, and you discover yourself to be a greater person by far than you ever dreamt yourself to be.’
Hence, I request the scientific, research, industrial and business community assembled from India and US and other participants to embark on a goal oriented research, development and commercialization missions on nano science and technologies for societal applications.
Encourage the youth to take up the challenge in these missions with international collaborations.
I inaugurate the Indo-US nano technology conclave and wish the Conference all success.
May God Bless you.”
Source : Press Information Bureau. Government of India

Friday, February 9, 2007

Nanotechnology Basics

What is Nanotechnology?

Answers differ depending on who you ask, and their background. Broadly speaking however, nanotechnology is the act of purposefully manipulating matter at the atomic scale, otherwise known as the "nanoscale."

Coined as "nano-technology" in a 1974 paper by Norio Taniguchi at the University of Tokyo, and encompassing a multitude of rapidly emerging technologies, based upon the scaling down of existing technologies to the next level of precision and miniaturization. Taniguchi approached nanotechnology from the 'top-down' standpoint, from the viewpoint of a precision engineer.

Foresight Nanotech Institute Founder K. Eric Drexler introduced the term "nanotechnology" to the world in 1986, using it to describe a 'bottom-up' approach. Drexler approaches nanotechnology from the point-of-view of a physicist, and defines the term as "large-scale mechanosynthesis based on positional control of chemically reactive molecules." See our Press Kit History of Nanotechnology for details.

In the future, "nanotechnology" will likely include building machines and mechanisms with nanoscale dimensions, referred to these days as Molecular Nanotechnology (MNT).


It uses a basic unit of measure called a "nanometer" (abbreviated nm). Derived from the Greek word for midget, "nano" is a metric prefix and indicates a billionth part (10-9).

There are one billion nm's to a meter. Each nm is only three to five atoms wide. They're small. Really small. ~40,000 times smaller than the width of an average human hair. (See How small is one-billionth of a meter?)

A good reference to visit to help you understand the nanoscale materials end of "nanotech" is the Teacher's Guide To The (Small) World Of Nanostructured Materials

One aspect of nanotechnology is all about building working mechanisms using components with nanoscale dimensions (MNT), such as super small computers (think bacteria-sized) with today's MIPS capacity, or supercomputers the size of a sugar cube, possessing the power of a billion laptops, or a regular sized desktop model with the power of trillions of today's PC's.

The other aspect deals with scaling down existing technologies to the nanoscale, examples of which can be seen at our Current Uses page.

Some of the most promising potential of nanotechnology exists due to the laws of quantum physics. Quantum physics laws take over at this scale, enabling novel applications in optics, electronics, magnetic storage, computing, catalysts, and other areas.

Regardless of the diverse opinions on the rate at which nanotechnology will be implemented, people who make it a habit of keeping up with technology advances agree on this: it is a technology in its infancy, and it holds the potential to change everything.

Read this great Introduction from the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology for a better understanding of what nanotechnology is and is not, the social and business implications, and some steps being considered to control misuse.

Related and interwoven fields include, but are not limited to: Nanomaterials, Nanomedicine, Nanobiotechnology, Nanolithography, Nanoelectronics, Nanomagnetics, Nanorobots, Biodevices (biomolecular machinery), AI, MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), NEMS (NanoElectroMechanical Systems), Biomimetic Materials, Microencapsulation, and many others.

Let's start BIG, with something you can get your hands on (so to speak):

A meter is about the distance from the tip of your nose to the end of your hand (1 meter = 3.28 feet).

One thousandth of that is a millimeter.

Now take one thousandth of that, and you have a micron: a thousandth of a thousandth of a meter. Put another way: a micron is a millionth of a meter, which is the scale that is relevant to - for instance - building computers, computer memory, and logic devices.

Now, let's go smaller, to the nanometer:

A nanometer is one thousandth of a micron, and a thousandth of a millionth of a meter (a billionth of a meter). Imagine: one billion nanometers in a meter.

Courtesy and © Quantum Dot Corporation ( Refer the image at the end of the post )
Another perspective: a nanometer is about the width of six bonded carbon atoms, and approximately 40,000 are needed to equal the width of an average human hair.

Another way to visualize a nanometer:
1 inch = 25,400,000 nanometers

Red blood cells are ~7,000 nm in diameter, and ~2000 nm in height
White blood cells are ~10,000 nm in diameter
A virus is ~100 nm
A hydrogen atom is .1 nm

Nanoparticles range from 1 to 100 nm
Fullerenes (C60 / Buckyballs) are 1 nm
Quantum Dots (of CdSe) are 8 nm
Dendrimers are ~10 nm
DNA (width) is 2 nm
Proteins range from 5 to 50 nm
Viruses range from 75 to 100 nm
Bacteria range from 1,000 to 10,000 nm

For our purposes, nanometers pertain to science, technology, manufacturing, chemistry, health sciences, materials science, space programs, and engineering.

Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.

At the nanoscale, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials differ in fundamental and valuable ways from the properties of individual atoms and molecules or bulk matter. Nanotechnology R&D is directed toward understanding and creating improved materials, devices, and systems that exploit these new properties.

From What is Nanotechnology?

Powers of 10 From 10-15 meters (a fermi), in steps of 10, to 10 -9 meters (nanometer), all the way out to 10 +16 meters (a lightyear), and finally, to 10 +23 meters (10 million light years). If you have not seen this really neat series of viewpoints, it can help to put scale into perspective!

"View the Milky Way at 10 million light years from the Earth. Then move through space towards the Earth in successive orders of magnitude until you reach a tall oak tree just outside the buildings of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, Florida. After that, begin to move from the actual size of a leaf into a microscopic world that reveals leaf cell walls, the cell nucleus, chromatin, DNA and finally, into the subatomic universe of electrons and protons."

Courtesy and © nanoech-now.com/basics web site.
Declaration : This blog site is not for any commercial / business purpose.